Adaptive Variable Stiffness with strategically arranged materials


  • Henriette Bier Delft University of Technology
  • Arwin Hidding Delft University of Technology
  • Emma Chris Avramiea Delft University of Technology




structures, joint, control, shape, stiffness, adaptive, changes, load


By designing materials with variable stiffness, structures can adapt to various functional requirements. This paper presents variable stiffness explored in two case studies relying on an architected material approach that involved gradient pattern differentiation and freeform printing using thermoplastic polymers (TPE).

The differentiated cell pattern had gradients from high to low density of cells, which facilitate variable stiffness. Numerical and experimental studies showed the potential for application of materials with variable stiffness in adaptive structures.

How to Cite

Bier, H., Hidding, A., & Avramiea, E. C. (2019). Adaptive Variable Stiffness with strategically arranged materials. SPOOL, 6(2), 11–16.




Schaedler, T. A., & Carter, W. B. (2016). Architected cellular materials. Annual Review of Materials Research, 46, 187-210.

Wan, L., Wendner, R., & Cusatis, G. (2016). A novel material for in situ construction on Mars: experiments and numerical simulations. Construction and Building Materials, 120, 222-231.