Hybrid System with Ornamental Garden Ponds and Functional Water System in Historical Cities in Japan
Keywords:landscape architecture, traditional garden, water network, historical aqueduct, green infrastructure, Japanese gardens, garden design
This research aims to reveal the workings of hybrid systems with ornamental garden ponds and functional water systems in historical Japanese garden cities through researching old maps, documents, and measuring canals and garden ponds in three old cities (Edo/ Tokyo, Kanra-Gunma, and Kojirokuji-Nagasaki). As a result, the following things became clear: (1) If more than 50% of canals run through private land, canals are complicatedly divided to reduce quantitative (flood and drought) and qualitative (pollution) risk; (2) Lords of these cities lived at the termination points of the systems to control the water quality of the entire water networks; (3) In most cases, canals are not directly connected to garden ponds. In the few cases in which garden ponds have the functionality to control amounts of water downstream or upstream, garden ponds are directly connected; (4) Garden design variety becomes richer in accordance with the topographical situation; (5) In gardens, canals are divided into different uses; ornamental use and practical use for daily life.