Time Thinking and Drawing in Designing Dynamic River Landscapes


  • Marijne Beenhakker H+N+S Landscape Architects
  • Jasper Hugtenburg H+N+S Landscape Architects
  • Jaap van der Salm H+N+S Landscape Architects





Floodplain design, Water calendar, Vegetation dynamics, Erosion, Dynamic landscape management, Drawing techniques


This visual essay explores the use of time thinking and drawing in the design process of the Ooijen- Wanssum floodplain widening project. Through a series of project sketches, final drawings and photos of the constructed project, the authors reveal the way in which time drawing has (often implicitly) given direction to the design process. The water calendar is introduced as a design tool that integrates time- dependent river dynamics into the design process and thereby informs spatial design choices that are considered in several design sketches. These design choices include interactions with dynamic processes such as erosion, vegetation dynamics and recreational use of the river landscape.

How to Cite

Beenhakker, M., Hugtenburg, J., & van der Salm, J. (2022). Time Thinking and Drawing in Designing Dynamic River Landscapes. SPOOL, 9(3), 75–90. https://doi.org/10.47982/spool.2022.3.05





Dooren, N. van (2015). Gardening the Delta. A Dutch approach to landscape architecture. In M. Berkers, J. D. Hoekstra and N. van Dooren (Eds.) Essay and lectures on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of H+N+S Landscape Architects. Uitgeverij Blauwdruk.

Dooren, N. van (2017). Drawing Time. The representation of growth, change and dynamics in Dutch landscape architectural practice after 1985. Dissertation, University of Amsterdam.

H+N+S Landscape Architects (2002). Die Umbau der Emscher (Rehabilitation of the Emscher River). In cooperation with Dr. Dahlem, Ingolf Hahn, Architektur und Stadtplanung.

H+N+S Landscape Architects (2008). Bypass Kampen – IJsseldelta Zuid (Kampen).

H+N+S Landscape Architects (2016). Room for the River Waal (Nijmegen-Lent).

H+N+S Landscape Architects (2018). Area Development Ooijen-Wanssum.

Lynch, K. (1972). What Time is this Place? The MIT Press.

Zerubavel, E. (2003). Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past. The University of Chicago Press.